Foreign Owned Company PT PMA

How to Establish a Foreign Company (PT PMA) in Indonesia?

Indonesia offers great opportunities to foreign investors due to the country’s large and young population, rising consumption, abundant natural resources, and cheap labour. Therefore, each year foreign direct investment (FDI) realization in Indonesia tends to grow. This section discusses the incorporation of a foreign investment limited liability company in Indonesia, known as Perseroan Terbatas Penanaman Modal Asing (abbreviated PT PMA). It is the legal entity through which a foreign investor can conduct commercial activities in Indonesia.

Based on Law No. 25/2007 regarding Investment (New Investment Law), a foreign investment in Indonesia is defined as an investing activity conducted by a foreign investor for the purpose of running a business within the territory of Indonesia. The legal entity through which a foreign person, foreign company, or foreign government body can conduct business in Indonesia (meaning generating revenue streams and profit) is the PT PMA. The establishment of a PT PMA is regulated by Law No. 40/2007 regarding Limited Liability Companies (Company Law). Such a company can be either 100 percent foreign-owned or partially foreign-owned.

It is important to stress that various sectors in Indonesia are closed, or partially closed, to foreign investment. To find out which sectors are open to foreign investment you need to access the Negative Investment List (Daftar Negatif Investasi), a list compiled – and regularly revised (!) – by the Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM). In case a sector is partially closed to foreign investment, then the list states the maximum allowed percentage of foreign ownership. This means that you will need to have a local (Indonesian) partner in order to engage in business in that particular sector.

Procedures for Setting up a Foreign Investment Company (PT PMA) in Indonesia

If, after considering the above questions, you decide to establish a foreign company in Indonesia, then you need to turn to the Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM), which is the investment service agency of the Indonesian government and deals with foreign investment. Although the BKPM has recently improved its services, it can still be a hazardous undertaking for a foreigner (especially one who is new to Indonesia and is yet to learn the language and customs) to arrange all permits in a timely and smoothly manner. To avoid problems, most foreign investors prefer to use the services of a local company, one that is specialized in the setting up of a PT PMA or representative office, to deal with all procedures at the BKPM and other institutions (the foreign investor only needs to send all necessary documents to this local company).

You do not necessarily need to establish a PT PMA from scratch. You can also decide to acquire an existing PT PMA or an existing Perseroan Terbatas (PT). Regarding the latter, as the PT is a local limited liability company, it needs to be converted into a PT PMA after acquisition.

Generally, the following licenses/documents are required for the establishment of a PT PMA in Indonesia:

  • Deed of Establishment (containing the Articles of Association) legalized by a Public Notary
  • Legalization of the legal entity status of the PT PMA by the Ministry of Law and Human Rights
  • Domicile Letter from the local district authority
  • Tax Identification Number (NPWP) and taxable entrepreneur confirmation (PKP) from the tax office
  • Company Registration to OSS System to obtain Single Business Number (NIB) and Business Permit

Shareholders of the PT PMA

At least two shareholders are required (President Director and President Commissioner) for the establishment of a PT PMA. At least one of the shareholders needs to be a foreign individual (or foreign legal entity). The Director needs to reside in Indonesia to take care of all daily activities. The foreigner who works and resides in Indonesia is required to obtain a tax number (NPWP) and apply for Investor KITAS.

Deed of Establishment of the PT PMA

In order to set up a PT PMA in Indonesia, the shareholders must present a deed of establishment which needs to be legalized by a public notary.

Generally, the following licenses/documents are required for the establishment of a PT PMA in Indonesia:

  • Regarding the Founders:
    In case the shareholder is an individual, the name, date of birth, place of birth, current residence information and citizenship.
    In case the shareholder is a legal entity, the domicile of the legal entity, including the full address, the date and number of legalization of the ministry.
  • Regarding Board of Directors and Board of Commissioners:
    The name, date of birth, place of birth, current residence information and citizenship information of the members of Board of Directors and Board of Commissioners who are first appointed through the deed of establishment
  • Regarding the Shareholders (other than the founders):
    The names, the number of shares and their issued and paid up nominal value.

Minimum (Paid Up) Capital Requirements for the PT PMA

For the establishment of a PT PMA, the foreign investor needs to comply with minimum capital requirements for foreign investment. Currently the minimum requirement stands at IDR 10 billion or the equivalent value in US dollars. The Indonesian government set a high requirement in order to attract large scale companies and investors, while protecting smaller sized local businesses.

Paid up capital is generally set at 100 percent of the minimum capital requirement (hence IDR 10 billion). In certain (capital intensive) industries paid up capital requirements are higher. In practice, however, it frequently occurs that a PT PMA is established without the foreign investor needing to transfer the paid up capital to an Indonesian bank account. The shareholders of the PT PMA can sign a Capital Statement Letter pledging that the paid up capital can be transferred (without ever transferring it). However, in specific sectors, such as the financial services sector, this is not possible.

Related regulation for set up PMA :

  1. PP Nomor 5 Tahun 2021
  2. Perpres Nomor 10 Tahun 2021
  3. Peraturan BKPM No 4 2021
  4. KBLI 2020
  5. Negative Investment List (Billingual)

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